DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/issn.2454-5929.ijohns20184356

Correlation of plasma lipid levels and histopathological grading in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma and its pre-cancerous lesions

Mohini Singh, Abhishek Bahadur Singh, Abhijeet Singh, S. P. Agarwal

Abstract


Background: Lower levels of lipid in proliferating tissues and in blood compartments may occur due to ongoing process of oncogenesis. The evidence regarding hypolipidemia as a predisposing factor for malignancy is scarce. Therefore, this study was undertaken to study alteration of plasma lipid levels in patients diagnosed with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and its oral pre-cancerous (OPC) lesions and also to compare the plasma lipid profile in different grades of OSCC.

Methods: A single centre prospective cross sectional study was carried out among 150 consecutive patients of OSCC and OPC lesions. The diagnosis of all lesions was confirmed histopathologically and grading was also done for each lesion based on degree of differentiation and keratinization of tumour cells. Serum total cholesterol, HDL, TG, LDL was estimated by using semi-automated chemical analyzer. The lipid levels were compared by using unpaired t-test between two strata whereas one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Tukey’s post-hoc tests was used among more than two strata.  

Results: Total cholesterol, TG, HDL, and LDL were significantly reduced in OSCC and OPC groups when compared with the reference values. Serum TC, LDL and HDL levels were found to be decreased with the loss of differentiation in histological grading but with no statistical significance.

Conclusions: It can be inferred that there is an inverse relationship between the serum lipid profile values of TC, HDLC, TG, LDL and OSCC as well as OPC patients. The lower serum lipid status may be considered a useful indicator for initial changes occurring in neoplastic cells.


Keywords


Oral squamous cell carcinoma, Histopathological grading, Oral sub-mucosal

Full Text:

PDF

References


Lohe VK, Degwekar SS, Bhowate RR, Kadu RP, Dangore SB. Evaluation of correlation of serum lipid profile in patients with oral cancer and precancer and its association with tobacco abuse. J Oral Pathol Med. 2010;39(2):141-8.

Johnson NW, Jayasekara P, Amarsinghe AA. Squamous cell carcinoma and precursor lesions of the oral cavity: epidemiology and etiology. Periodontal 2000. 2011;57:19-37.

Acharya S, Rai P, Hallikeri K, Anehosur V, Kale J. Serum lipid profile in oral squamous cell carcinoma: alterations and association with some clinico-pathological parameters and tobacco use. International J Oral Maxillofacial Surg. 2016;45:713–20.

Poorey VK, Thakur P. Alterations of lipid profile in patients with head and neck malignancy. Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2016;68:135-40.

Anneroth G, Batsakis J, Luna M. Review of the literature and a recommended system of malignancy grading in oral squamous cell carcinomas. Scand J Dent Res. 1987;95:229-49.

Gurudath S, Ganapathy K, D S, Pai A, Ballal S, Ml A. Estimation of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in oral submucous fibrosis, oral leukoplakia and oral cancer — A comparative study. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2012;13:4409–12.

Jahanshahi G, Sabaghian M. Comparative immunohistochemical analysis of angiogenesis and mast cell density in oral normal mucosa and squamous cell carcinoma. Dent Res J (Isfahan) 2012;9:8–12.

Patel PS, Shah MH, Jha FP, Raval GN, Rawal RM, Patel MM, Patel JB, Patel D Alterations in Plasma Lipid Profile Patterns in Head and Neck Cancer and Oral Precancerous Conditions. Indian J Cancer. 2004;41:25-31.

Qadir MI, Malik SA, Naveed AK, Ahmad I. Plasma lipid profile in sarcoma patients. Pak J Pharm Sci. 2006;19:152-5.

Halton JM, Nazir DJ, McQueen MJ, Barr RD. Blood lipid profiles in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Cancer. 1998;83:379-84.

Allampallam K, Dutt D, Nair C, Shetty V, Mundle S, Lisak L, et al. The clinical and biologic significance of abnormal lipid profiles in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes. J Hematother Stem. Cell Res. 2000;9:247-55.

Gilbert MS, Ginsberg H, Fagerstrom R, Brown WV. Characterization of hypocholesterolemia in myeloproliferative disease: Relation to disease manifestations and activity. Am J Med. 1981;71:595-602.

Alexopoulos CG, Blatsios B, Avgerinos A. Serum lipids and lipoprotein disorders in cancer patients. Cancer. 1987;60:3065-70.

Edge SB, Byrd DR, Compton CC et al. (eds). Lip and Oral cavity. In: AJCC cancer staging manual, 7th edn. New York: Springer; 2010: 29-40.

Santos FB, Vasconcelos-Raposo JJ, Figueiredo Mdo C. Correlation Between Symptoms And Course Duration Of Upper Aerodigestive Tract Cancer At Early And Advanced Stages. Braz J Otorhinolaryngol. 2013;79:673-80.

Kumar KK, Saraswathi TR, Ranganathan K, Devi MU, Joshua E. Oral Submucous Fibrosis- A clinico- histopathological study in Chennai. Indian Journal Dental Res. 2007;18:106-11.

Pandya S, Chaudhary AK, Singh M, Singh M, Mehrotra R. Correlation of histopathological diagnosis with habits and clinical findings in oral submucous fibrosis. Head Neck Oncol. 2009;1:1-10.

Murti PR, Bhonsle RB, Pindborg JJ, Daftary DK, Gupta PC et al. Etiology of OSF with special reference to the role of arecanut chewing. J Oral Pathol Med. 1995;24:145-52.

Paissat DK. Oral sub-mucous fibrosis. Int J Oral Surg. 1981;10:307-12.

Gandini S, Botteri E, Iodice S. Tobacco smoking and cancer: a meta-analysis. Int J Cancer 2008;122(1):155-64.

Lubin JH, Muscat J, Gaudet MM. An examination of male and female odds ratios by BMI, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption for cancers of the oral cavity, pharynx, and larynx in pooled data from 15 case-control studies). Cancer Causes Control. 2011;22:1217-31.

McMohan J, O’Brien CJ, Pathak I, Hamill R, McNeil E, Hammersley N, et al. Influence of condition of surgical margins on local recurrence and disease- specific survival in oral and oropharyngeal cancer. Br J Oral Maxillofacial Surg. 2003;41:224-31.

Siecka E, Datta R, Singh A, Loree T, Rigual N, Orner J, et al. Cancer of buccal mucosa: are margins and T stage accurate predictors of local control? Am J Otolaryngol. 2001;22(6):395-9.

Akinyamoju AO, Adeyemi BF, Kolude B, Adisa AO. Histological grading of oral squamous cell carcinoma patients in Ibadan using Bryne's and Broders' grading systems--a comparative study. Afr J Med Med Sci. 2013;42(4):333-7.

Ashutosh K. Relationship between serum lipid profile and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Int J Dent Health Sci. 2015;2:22–6.

Garg D, Sunil MK, Singh PP, Singla N, Rani SR, Kaur B. Serum lipid profile in oral precancer and cancer: a diagnostic or prognostic marker. J Int Oral Health. 2014;6:33–9.

Nayak P. Nayak S. Darafsh MD. Alteration in plasma lipid profile in precancerous conditions. J Nepal Dent Assoc. 2010;11(1):40-5.

Neerupakam M, Alaparthi RK, Sathish S, Katta SA, Polisetty N, Damera S. Alterations in plasma lipid profile patterns in oral cancer. J Ind Acad Oral Med Radiol. 2014;26:274-8.

Singh S, Ramesh V, Premalatha B, Prasad VK, Ramadoss K. Alteration in Serum lipid profile patterns in oral cancer. J Natural Sci Biological Med. 2013;4:374-8.

Bailwad SA. Singh N. Jani DR. Patil P. Singh M. Deep G. Singh S. Alterations in serum lipid profile patterns in oral cancer: correlation with histological grading and tobacco abuse. Oral Health Dent Manag. 2014;13(3):573-9.

Ajai K, Panat SR, Aggarwal A, Agarwal N, Upadhyay N, Joshi A. Estimation of serum lipids in patients with Oral Submucous Fibrosis in India. J Clin Exp Dent. 2014;6(3):237-42.

Mehta R, Gurudath S, Dayansoor S, Pai A, Ganapathy KS. Serum lipid profile in patients with oral cancer and oral precancerous conditions. Dent Res J (Isfahan). 2014;11(3):345–50.

Ganavi BS, Patil S, Rao RS. Evaluation of serum lipids and lipoproteins as prognosticators in leukoplakia. J Contemp Dent Pract. 20141;15(3):294-9.

Gupta N, Mohan RPS, Verma S, Ghanta S, Agarwal N, Sankar N. Alterations in serum lipid profile patterns in head & neck cancer and oral submucous fibrosis patients. Int Dent J Student’s Res. 2014;2(3):17-24.

Kanthem RK, Guttikonda VR. Serum lipid profile in oral submucous fibrosis: A clinico pathological study. J Oral Maxillofac Pathol. 2015;19(2):139-44.

Baduni A, Mody BM, Bagewadi S, Sharma ML, Vijay B, Garg A. Alterations in plasma lipid profile patterns in leukoplakia and oral submucous fibrosis - a pilot study. J Dent Specialities. 2015;3(2):126-9.

Thabusum DA, Reddy RS, Ramesh T, Rajesh N. Lipid Profile as a Marker of Pre-stage Cancer and Oral Cancer in Tobacco Users. Int Blood Res Rev. 2015.3(1):26-35.

Vyas T, Bhargava R. SharmaA. Comparative Study of Serum Lipid Profile Parameters for Oral Cancer and Non Oral Cancer Patients.Int J Com Health and Med Res. 2016;2(2):49-55.

Nydegger UE, Butler RE Serum lipoprotein levels in patients with Cancer. Cancer Res. 1972;32(8):1756-60.

Schatzkin A, Hoover RN, Taylor PR, Ziegler RG, Carter CL, Albanes D, et al. Site-specific analysis of total serum cholesterol and incident cancerin the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey I Epidemiologie Follow-up Study1 .Cancer Res. 1988;48(2):428-52.

Chyou PH, Nomura AM, Stemmermann GN, Kato I. Prospective study of serum cholesterol and site-specific cancers. J Clin Epidemiol. 1992;45:287-92.

Sherubin EJ. Kannan KS. Kumar DN. Joseph I. Estimation of plasma lipids and its significance on histopathological grades in oral cancer:Prognostic significance an original research. J Oral Maxillofac Pathol. 2013;17:4–9.

Mehrotra R, Pandya S, Chaudhary A, Singh H, Jaiswal R, Singh M, et al. Lipid profile in oral submucous fibrosis. Lipids Health Dis. 2009;8:1-29.

Kumar P, Augustine J, Urs, A.B., Arora S, Gupta S, Mohanty VR. Serum lipid Profile in oral cancer and leukoplakia:Correlation with tobacco abuse and histological Grading. J Cancer Res Therp. 2012;8:384-8.

Phillips NR, Havel RJ, Kane JP. Levels and Interrelationships of serum and lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1981;1:13-24.

Tucker LA. Use of smokeless Tobacco, Cigarette Smoking, and Hypercholesterolemia. Am J Public Health. 1989;79:1048-50.

Khurana M, Sharma D, Khandelwal PD. Lipid profile in smokers and tobacco chewers- a comparative study. J Assoc Physicians India. 2000;48:895-97.

Neki NS. Lipid Profile in Chronic Smokers- A Clinical Study. JIACM. 2002;3:51-4.

Kshitiz KK, Sinha RB, Bhattacharjee J. A study of effects of smoking on lipid and vitamin C metabolism-A pilot study in Central Bihar. Int J Pharm Bio Sci. 2010;1:106-113.

Venkatesan A, Hemalatha A, Bobby Z, Selvaraj N, Sathiyapriya V. Effect of smoking on lipid profile and lipid peroxidation in normal subjects. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2006;50:273-8.