DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/issn.2454-5929.ijohns20190757

Acute xerostomia in head and neck radiotherapy

Dalya S. A. Al-Nuaimi, Khudair J. Al-Rawaq, Ali G. M. Noori, Marwa A. N. Fattah

Abstract


Background: Xerostomia is a common complaint experienced with radiotherapy to the head and neck and it is caused by salivary glands dysfunction.

Methods: Xerostomia is a common complaint experienced with radiotherapy to the head and neck and it is caused by salivary glands dysfunction.  

Results: The mean age was 51.69±13.7 years; 67% were men and 33% were women. Nasopharyngeal tumor and larynx cancer were the common tumors diagnosed (29% and 28% respectively), 78% of the tumors were squamous cell carcinoma and 53% of them in stage III. Most patients didn’t take chemotherapy during radiotherapy (90%), while 68% of them have previously received chemotherapy. The mean dose of radiotherapy used was 63.2±9.65 Gray. Post radiotherapy, the highest proportion diagnosed with xerostomia grade I (37%), while 21% of them were free of xerostomia. Female, negative past medical history, site, stage and dose of radiation were associated factors that increased prevalence of xerostomia.

Conclusions: After radiotherapy, there is a high chance for developing xerostomia. Females, negative past medical history, advanced stage of tumor, high dose of radiation and site of tumor (oral, nasopharyngeal, and parotid) were significantly associated factors. Tumor site was a significant factor associated with the grade of xerostomia.


Keywords


Xerostomia, Radiotherapy, Salivary gland dysfunction, Head and neck cancer

Full Text:

PDF

References


Elizabeth C, Corina J. Head and Neck Cancer: Treatment, Rehabilitation, and Outcomes. 2nd ed. Plural Publishing, Inc. US; 2014.

Iraqi Cancer Registry. Ministry Of Health, Iraqi Cancer Board, Baghdad, 2011. Available at: https://moh.gov.iq/upload/upfile/ar/273.pdf. Accessed on 11 October 2018.

Brizel DM, Adelstein DJ. Perez & Brady's Principles and Practice of Radiation Oncology. In: Halperin EC, Wazer DE, Perez CA, et al eds. Locally Advanced Squamous Carcinoma of the Head and Neck. 6th ed. Wolters Kluwer Health / Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, China: 2013.

Mendenhall WM, Werning JW, Pfister DG. Devita, Hellman, Rosenberg. Cancer: principles & practice of oncology: Cancers of head and neck. In: Devita VT. Lawrence TS, Rosenberg SA. 10th ed. USA: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2014.

Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) v5.0. Available at: https://ctep.cancer.gov/protocolDevelopment/electronic_applications/ctc.htm#ctc_50. Accessed on 23 October 2018.

Dirix P, Nuyts S, Vander Poorten V, Delaere P, Van den Bogaert W. The influence of xerostomia after radiotherapy on quality of life. Supportive Care Cancer. 2008;16(2):171-9.

Kaae JK, Stenfeldt L, Eriksen JG. Xerostomia after Radiotherapy for Oral and Oropharyngeal Cancer: Increasing Salivary Flow with Tasteless Sugar-free Chewing Gum. Frontiers Oncol. 2016;6(111):1-6.

Kakoei S, Haghdoost AA, Rad M, Mohammadalizadeh S, Pourdamghan N, Nakhaei M, et al. Xerostomia after Radiotherapy and its Effect on Quality of Life in Head and Neck Cancer Patients. Arch Iran Med. 2012;15(4):214–8.

Meirovitz A, Murdoch-Kinch CA, Schipper M, Pan C, Eisbruch A. Grading xerostomia by physicians or by patients after intensity-modulated radiotherapy of head-and-neck cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2006;66(2):445-53.

Memtsa PT, Tolia M, Tzitzikas I, Bizakis J, Pistevou Gombaki K, Charalambidou M, et al. Assessment of xerostomia and its impact on quality of life in head and neck cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy. Mol Clin Oncol. 2017;6(5):789-93.

Pow EH, Kwong DL, McMillan AS, Wong MC, Sham JS, Leung LH, et al. Xerostomia and quality of life after intensity-modulated radiotherapy vs. conventional radiotherapy for early-stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma: initial report on a randomized controlled clinical trial. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2006;66(4):981-91.

Tribius S, Prosch C, Tennstedt P, Bajrovic A, Kruell A, Petersen C, et al. Xerostomia After Radiotherapy: What Matters-Mean Total Dose or Dose to Each Parotid? Initial Results. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2011;81(2):496-7.

Jellema AP, Doornaert P, Slotman BJ, Leemans CR, Langendijk JA. Does radiation dose to the salivary glands and oral cavity predict patient-rated xerostomia and sticky saliva in head and neck cancer patients treated with curative radiotherapy? Radiother Oncol. 2005;77(2):164-71.