DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/issn.2454-5929.ijohns20211201

Olfactory dysfunction and anosmia awareness in coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic

Meenesh Juvekar, Baisali Sarkar

Abstract


Raise awareness of anosmia association in Coronavirus pandemic. Current finding about Coronavirus infection and its association with olfactory dysfunction and anosmia is reviewed. The exact mechanism of Coronavirus on the Olfactory system is still unresolved. The olfactory dysfunction is due to local inflammation of the nasal cavity or viral-induced olfactory nerve damage or both. Screening of all patients coming with anosmia should be done to early diagnose the disease and isolate and treat accordingly. Olfactory dysfunction is the most common clinical feature of coronavirus disease 2019 with anosmia being the most distinguished sign with patient may present with sudden onset anosmia as single clinical feature or in association with taste dysfunction and / or dry cough, sore throat, pharyngitis, fever. Clinician should be alert of anosmia and diagnose, isolate and treat patients accordingly.


Keywords


SARS-CoV 2, COVID-19, Pandemic, Olfactory dysfunction, Anosmia

Full Text:

PDF

References


Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) - Symptoms and causes." Mayo Clinic. Available at: https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/coronavirus/symptoms-causes/syc-20479963. Accessed on 14th April 2020.

Hui DS, I Azhar E, Madani TA, Ntoumi F, Kock R, Dar O, et al. "The continuing 2019-nCoV epidemic threat of novel coronaviruses to global health- The latest 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak in Wuhan, China". Int J Infect Diss. 2020;91:264-6.

"WHO Director-General's opening remarks at the media briefing on COVID-19". World Health Organization WHO). 2020. Available at: https://www.who.int/director-general/speeches/detail/who-director-general-s-opening-remarks-at-the-media-briefing-on-covid-19---12-june-2020. Accessed on 12th March, 2020.

"How COVID-19 Spreads". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 2020. Accessed on 3rd April, 2020.

"Q & A on COVID-19". European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Available at: https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/covid-19/questions-answers. Accessed on 30th April, 2020.

DGHNO-KHC, BVHNO. Up-to-date information on the topic of Pragmatic Personnel Protection" by protective masks/visors outside hospital-specific Covid-19 isolation and surgical areas on the part of the DGHNO-KHC and BVHNO. 2020. https://cdn.hno.org/media /Coron a-Ticke r/Pragm atisc her_ Perso nalsc hutz_Info_DGHNO _BVHNO_30-03-20.pdf. Accessed on 31st May, 2020.

van Doremalen N, Bushmaker T, Morris DH. Aerosol and Surface Stability of SARS-CoV-2 as Compared with SARSCoV-1. N Engl J Med. 2020;382:1564-1567.

Chen N, Zhou M, Dong X, Qu J, Gong F, Han Y, et al. "Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study". Lancet. 2020;395(10223):507-13.

"Symptoms of Coronavirus". U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 200. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/symptoms-testing/symptoms.html. Accessed on 18th June, 2020.

Hessen MT. "Novel Coronavirus Information Center: Expert guidance and commentary". Elsevier Connect. 2020. Available at: https://www.elsevier.com/connect/coronavirus-information-center. Accessed on 31 January 2020.

Grant, Michael C, Luke G, Marc A, Zakaria M, Luke M et al. Wade, Ryckie G. "The prevalence of symptoms in 24, 410 adults infected by the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19): A systematic review and meta-analysis of 148 studies from 9 countries". PLOS ONE. 2020;15(6):e0234765.

Ramakrishna R, Zadeh G, Sheehan JP, Aghi MK. Inpatient and outpatient case prioritization for patients with neuro-oncologic disease amid the COVID-19 pandemic: general guidance for neuro-oncology practitioners from the AANS/CNS Tumor Section and Society for Neuro-Oncology. J Neurooncol. 2020.

Workman AD, Welling DB, Carter BS, Curry WT, Holbrook EH, Gray ST, et al. Endonasal instrumentation and aerosolization risk in the era of COVID-19: simulation, literature review, and proposed mitigation strategies. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 2020.

Marchese-Ragona R, Ottaviano G, Nicolai P, Vianello A, Carecchio M. Sudden hyposmia as a prevalent symptom of COVID-19 infection. medRxiv. 2020.2004.2006.20045393.

Lechien JR, Chiesa-Estomba CM, De Siati DR, Horoi M, Le Bon SD, Rodrig

uez A, et al. Olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions as a clinical presentation of mild-to-moderate forms of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19): a multicenter European study. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2020.

Heidari F, Karimi E, Firouzifar M, Khamushian P, Ansari R, Mohammadi Ardehali M, et al. Anosmia as a prominent symptom of COVID-19 infection. Rhinology. 2020.

Klopfenstein T, Kadiane-Oussou NJ, Toko L, Royer PY, Lepiller Q, Gendrin V et al. Features of anosmia in COVID-19. Med Mal Infect. 2020;pii:S0399-077X(20)30110-4.

Luers JC, Rokohl AC, Loreck N, Wawer Matos PA, Augustin M, Dewald F, et al. Olfactory and gustatory dysfunction in coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). Clin Infect Dis. 2020;pii:ciaa525.

Giacomelli A, Pezzati L, Conti F, Bernacchia D, Siano M, Oreni L, et al. Self-reported olfactory and taste disorders in SARS-CoV-2 patients: a cross-sectional study. Clin Infect Dis. 2020;pii:ciaa330.

Yan CH, Faraji F, Prajapati DP, Boone CE, DeConde AS. Association of chemosensory dysfunction and Covid-19 in patients presenting with influenza-like symptoms. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 2020.

Bagheri SHR, Asghari AM, Farhadi M, Shamshiri AR, Kabir A, Kamrava SK, et al. Coincidence of COVID-19 epidemic and olfactory dysfunction outbreak. medRxiv 2020;2020.2003.2023.20041889.

Menni C, Valdes A, Freydin MB, Ganesh S, El-Sayed Moustafa J, Visconti A, et al. Loss of smell and taste in combination with other symptoms is a strong predictor of COVID-19 infection. medRxiv. 2020;2020.2004.2005.20048421.

Spinato G, Fabbris C, Polesel J, Cazzador D, Borsetto D, Hopkins C, et al. Alterations in smell or taste in mildly symptomatic outpatients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Jama 2020.

Moein ST, Hashemian SMR, Mansourafshar B, Khorram-Tousi A, Tabarsi P, Doty RL. Smell dysfunction: a biomarker for COVID-19. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 2020.

Beltran-Corbellini A, Chico-Garcia JL, Martinez-Poles J, Rodriguez-Jorge F, Natera-Villalba E, Gomez-Corral J, et al. Acute-onset smell and taste disorders in The context of Covid-19: a pilot multicenter PCR-based case-control study. Eur J Neurol. 2020.

Shweta F, Murugadoss K, Awasthi S, Venkatakrishnan A, Puranik A, Kang M, et al. Augmented curation of unstructured clinical notes from a massive EHR system reveals specific phenotypic signature of impending COVID-19 diagnosis. arXiv preprint. 2020;arXiv:200409338.

Williams FM, Freydin M, Mangino M, Couvreur S, Visconti A, Bowyer RC, et al. Self-reported symptoms of covid-19 including symptoms most predictive of SARS-CoV-2 infection, are heritable. medRxiv. 2020;2020.2004.2022.20072124.

Lovato A, de Filippis C. Clinical Presentation of COVID-19: A systematic review focusing on upper airway symptoms. Ear Nose Throat J. 2020;145561320920762.

Forster P, Forster L, Renfrew C, Forster M. Phylogenetic network analysis of SARS-CoV-2 genomes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2020;117:9241-3.

Wu Y, Xu X, Chen Z, Duan J, Hashimoto K, Yang L, et al. Nervous system involvement after infection with COVID-19 and other coronaviruses. Brain Be hav Immun. 2020;pii:S0889-1591(20)303573.

Baig AM, Khaleeq A, Ali U, Syeda H. Evidence of the COVID-19 virus targeting the CNS: tissue distribution, host-virus interaction, and proposed neurotropic mechanisms. ACS Chem Neurosci. 2020;11:995-8.

Mao L, Jin H, Wang M, Hu Y, Chen S, He Q, et al. Neurologic manifestations of hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 in Wuhan, China. JAMA Neurol. 2020.

Koyuncu OO, Hogue IB, Enquist LW. Virus infections in the nervous system. Cell Host Microbe. 2013;13:379-93.

Baig AM. Neurological manifestations in COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2. CNS Neurosci Ther. 2020;26:499-501.

Sungnak W, Huang N, Becavin C, Berg M, Queen R, Litvinukova M, et al. SARS-CoV-2 entry factors are highly expressed in nasal epithelial cells together with innate immune genes. Nat Med. 2020.

Gengler I, Wang JC, Speth MM, Sedaghat AR. Sinonasal pathophysiology of SARS‐ CoV‐ 2 and COVID‐ 19: a systematic review of the current evidence. Laryngoscope Investigative Otolaryngology. 2020.

Hummel T, Whitcroft KL, Andrews P, Altundag A, Cinghi C, Costanzo RM, et al. Position paper on olfactory dysfunction. Rhinol Suppl. 2017;54:1-30.

Jafek BW, Murrow B, Michaels R, Restrepo D, Linschoten M Biopsies of human olfactory epithelium. Chem Senses. 2002;27:623.