Published: 2021-11-25

A study on otorhinolaryngological manifestations in pregnant women

Shallu Jamwal, Gopika Kalsotra, Monica Manhas, Apurva Raina, Parmod Kalsotra, Owais Ul Islam, Youshita .


Background: Pregnancy is characterized by various endocrinological and physiological changes affecting different organs including ear, nose and throat. Otorhinolaryngological manifestations in pregnant women are mainly due to changes in levels of sex hormones such as estrogen and progesterone. While majority of these conditions are benign and reverse after parturition, some do not. The study was conducted with an objective to find the incidence of various otorhinolaryngological manifestations among pregnant women and to create awareness among the medical professionals to diagnose these conditions.

Methods: This is a hospital based cross sectional study of 240 pregnant women who presented to the department of otorhinolaryngology with ENT symptoms. Detailed history, general physical examination and complete ENT examination was done on all subjects.

Results: 47.9% of the study cases had otological manifestations among which otitis media was the main finding.

16.7 % of the cases had nasal symptoms among which rhinits was the main condition predominantly observed in the 3rd trimester. 19.6% of the cases had oral cavity lesions with stomatitis being the most commonly found cause. 15.8% of the cases had throat complaints, among which gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) was the most common cause found during 2nd and 3rd trimester.

Conclusions: Recognition and understanding of pregnancy related ear, nose throat complaints will allow otolaryngologist to reassure and manage these patients, improving their experience of the gestational period.


Pregnancy, ENT manifestations, Trimester, GERD, Laryngopathia gravidarum

Full Text:



Hansen L, Sobol SM, Abelson TI. Otolaryngologic manifestations of pregnancy. J Fam Pract. 1986;23:151-5.

Torsiglieri AJ Jr, Tom LW, Keane WM, Atkins JP Jr. Otolaryngologic manifestations of pregnancy. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1990;102(3):293-7.

Weissman A, Nir D, Shenhav R, Zimmer EZ, Joachims ZH, Danino J. Eustachian tube function during pregnancy. Clin Otolaryngol Allied Sci. 1993;18(3):212-4.

Anwar K, Gohar MS. Otomycosis; clinical features, predisposing factors and treatment implications Pak J Med Sci. 2014;30:564-7.

Kanadys WM, Oleszczuk J. Sudden sensorineural hearing loss during pregnancy. Ginekol Pol. 2005;76(3):225-7.

Dugan-Kim M, Connell S, Stika C, Wong CA, Gossett DR. Epistaxis of pregnancy and association with post-partum haemorrhage. Obstet Gynecol. 2009;114:1322-5.

Richter JE. Gastroesophageal reflux disease during pregnancy. Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 2003;32(1):235-61.

Shiny Sherlie V, Varghese A. ENT changes of pregnancy and its management. Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2014;66(1):6-9.

Ajiya A, Ayyuba R, Hamisu A, Daneji SM. Otorhinolaryngological health of women attending antenatal care clinic in a tertiary hospital:the Amino Kano teaching hospital experience . Niger J Basic Clin Sci. 2016;13:119-24.

Koichi T, Shizue T, Minako T, Yoshitaka S. The influence of pregnancy on sensation of ear problems–ear problems associated with healthy pregnancy. J Laryngol Otol. 1999;113:318-20.

Swain SK, Pati BK, Mohanty JN. Otological manifestations in pregnant women A study at a tertiary care hospital of eastern India. J Otol. 2020;15(3):103-6.

Singla P, Gupta M, Matreja PS, Gill R. Otorhinolaryngological complaints in pregnancy: a prospective study in a tertiary care centre. Int J Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2015;1:75-80.

Markou K, Goudakos J. An overview of the etiology of otosclerosis. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2009;266:1.

Danielides V, Skevas A, van Cauwenberge P, Vinck B, Tsanades G, Plachouras N. Facial nerve palsy during pregnancy. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Belg. 1996;50(2):131-5.

Black FO. Maternal susceptibility to nausea and vomiting of pregnancy: is the vestibular system involved? Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2002;186(5):S204-9.

Whitefield P, Stoddard DM. Hearing, taste and smell: Pathology of perception. Torstar Binks Inc, New York, NY. 2006.

Jain K, Kaur H. Prevalence of oral lesions and measurement of salivary pH in the different trimesters of pregnancy. Singapore Med J. 2015;56(1):53-7.

Laine MA. Effects of pregnancy on dental health. Acta odontol scand. 2002;60:257-64.

Gomes SR, Shakir QJ, Thaker PV, Tavadia JK. Pyogenic granuloma of the gingiva: A misnomer? -A case report and review of literature. J Indian Soc Periodontol. 2013;17:514-9.

Yuan K, Wing LYC, Lin MT. Pathogenic roles of angiogenic factors in pyogenic granulomas in pregnancy are modulated by female sex hormones. J Periodontol. 2002;73(7):701-8.

Malfertheiner SF, Malfertheiner MV, Kropf S, Costa SD, Malfertheiner P. A prospective longitudinal cohort study: evolution of GERD symptoms during the course of pregnancy. BMC Gastroenterol. 2012;12:131.

Ahmed A, Zubaidi AL. Otorhinolaryngological manifestations in pregnancy. Kufa Med J. 2012;15(2):1-10.

Hoing R, Seitzer D. Clinical aspects of laryngopathia gravidarum. Laryngol Rhinol Otol (Stuttg). 1988;67(11):564-6.