DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/issn.2454-5929.ijohns20180724

A clinical study of epistaxis

Sawanth Sampigethya, Elizabeth Cherian, Deepika Pratap, Ivan Mani, Vadisha Srinivas Bhat

Abstract


Background: Epistaxis is one the common emergencies in Oto-rhino-laryngology. It may occur in any age and in either gender. Cause of epistaxis range from simple self-limiting condition to more sinister malignancy which needs a radical approach. Hence, one should evaluate these patients appropriately and identify the cause to treat them accordingly. The present work was undertaken with the aim of studying the demographic profile of patients with epistaxis, its causes and management.

Methods: The present study consisted of 60 patients who came with complaint of epistaxis. The patient’s detailed history was obtained. Detailed systemic examination and ENT examination was performed on patients in the study. Patients were investigated and treated as per the standard hospital protocol.  

Results: Out of the total 60 cases of epistaxis, 65% were males and 35% were females. Most of our cases were aged more than 50 years (31.7%) with mean age of 38.56 years. Most common etiology of epistaxis in present study was hypertension (20%), followed by acute rhino-sinusitis (15%). Commonest cause in children was deviated nasal septum and acute rhinosinusitis while in young adults, trauma was the common cause. Most common cause in elderly was hypertension. Medical management was done in most of the cases (65%) while anterior and posterior packing was done in 20% and 10% cases respectively. Three cases underwent electro-cauterization of bleeding point.

Conclusions: Epistaxis can be seen in anyage. However the etiology of this condition varies with age. Understanding of the etiology helps in better evaluation and treatment of the case. 


Keywords


Epistaxis, Etiology, Hypertension, Acute rhinosinusitis

Full Text:

PDF

References


The American Heritage. Stedman's Medical Dictionary. HoughtonMiffin Company; 2002.

Watkinson JC. Epistaxis. 6th ed. Chapter 18. In: Rhinology, ScottBrown's Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Ian S Mackay, Bull TR, eds. Oxford: Butterworth Heinemann; 1998: 942-961.

Gerald W McGarry. Epistaxis. 7th ed. Chapter 126. In: Scott Brown'sOtorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Michael Gleeson, ed. London: Hodder Arnold; 2008: 1596-1608.

Akinpelu OV, Amusa YB, Eziyi JA, Nwawolo CC: A retrospective analysis of aetiology and management of epistaxis in a south-western Nigerian teaching hospital. West Afr J Med. 2009;28:165-8.

Pond F, Sizeland A. Epistaxis. Strategies for management. Aust Fam Physician. 2000;29:933-8.

Yueng-Hsiang C, Jih-Chin L. Unilateral Epistaxis. New England J Med. 2009;361(9):4-10.

Ciaran SH, Owain H. Update on management of epistaxis. The West London Med J. 2009;1:33-41.

Walker TWM, Macfarlane TV, McGarry GW: The epidemiology and chronobiology of epistaxis: an investigation of Scottish hospital admissions 1995-2004. Clin Otolaryngol. 2007;32:361-5.

Gilyoma JM, Chalya PL. Etiological profile and treatment outcome of epistaxis at a tertiary care hospital in Northwestern Tanzania: a prospective review of 104 cases. BMC ear, Nose and throat Disorders. 2011;11(1):1.

Eziyi JAE, Akinpelu OV, Amusa YB, Eziyi AK. Epistaxis in Nigerians: A 3-year Experience. East Cent Afr J Surg. 2009;14(2):93-8.

Varshney S, Saxena RK. Epistaxis: a retrospective clinical study. Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2005;57:125-9.

Jain NK, Kumar A. Etiological Profile and Treatment Outcome of Epistaxis at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Rural Setup: a Prospective Review of 90 Cases. International J Sci Res. 2015;4(7):813-8.

Pandey D. A prospective study of clinical profile of patients with epistaxis at secondary level care metro hospital. Asian Pac J Health Sci. 2016;3(2):78-80.

Shah WA, Amin P, Nazir F. Epistaxis-Etiological Profile and Treatment Outcome at a Tertiary Care Centre. J Evolution Med Dental Sci. 2015;4(3):5204-10.

Mgbor NC. Epistaxis in Enugu: A 9 year Review. Nig J of otolaryngol. 2004;1(2):11-4.

Kaygusuz I, Karlidag T, Keles E, Yalcin S, Alpay HC, Sakallioglu O. Retrospective Analysis of 68 Hospitalized Patients with Epistaxis. Firat Tip Dergisi. 2004;9(3):82-5.

Pfaff JA, Gregory P. Otolaryngology. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: 5 ed. St Louis: Mosby, Inc; 2002; 928-938.

Claran SH, Owain H. Update on management of epistaxis. The west London Med J. 2009;1:33-41

Bhatta R. Clinical profile of idiopathic epistaxis in a hospital. J Nepal Med Assoc. 2012;52(188).

Chaiyasate S, Roongrotwattanasiri K, Fooanan S, Su mitsawan Y. Epistaxis in Chiang Mai University Hospital. J Med Assoc Thai. 2005;88(9):1282-6.

Daudia A, Jaiswal V, Jones NS: Guidelines for the management of idiopathic epistaxis in adults: how we do it. Clinical Otolaryngol. 2008;33:607-28.

Gilyoma JM, Chalya PL. Etiological profile and treatment outcome of epistaxis at a tertiary care hospital in Tanzania: a prospective review of 104 cases. BMC Ear Nose Throat Disord. 2011;11:8.

Iseh KR, Muhammad Z. Pattern of epistaxis in Sokoto, Nigeria: A review of 72 cases. Ann Afr Med. 2008;7:107-11.